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May 24, 2013

Think About This. PKS - Partai Keadilan Sejahtera - Cadres degrading the Prophet Joseph Story

The impact of imports of crispy bacon bribery case in the Ministry of Agriculture goatee was remarkable, Vortex black bearded meat continues to roll like a snowball getting bigger and eventually cause tremendous panic panic especially officials and their PKS cadres at the grass roots.

The bribery case came from the hands of the Commission of the fishing operation fathanah Ahmad was alone in the room with a beautiful woman at the hotel Le Meridien Jakarta. As a result of the incident, not just Ahmad fathanah are a convict, former PKS president Lutfi Hasan Isaaq and two directors of Main Indoguna also been named suspects by the KPK.

Publication relentless preaching always color the bribery case, let alone a lot of unexpected things black vortex behind the bearded meat, for example unfolding conversation after conversation started recording through the Commission which played the leads in bribery trial of crispy meat imports and the fact many bearded butterfly Ahmad dilingkaran pretty fathanah and other unexpected events that make the public wonder that anyone thinks the party that has brought clean and care jargon, but behind clean and empty jargon cares it turns out that far from the truth.

Given this reality, many PKS cadres at the grass roots of anger especially as many of them are bearded truth, they are so panicked, because it is like a ship, PKS is like a ship that is facing the seconds hit by a storm and sank due to big waves, so it is certainly a lot of ways this is done so that the ship does not sink kedasar oceans.

So to save this sinking ship, many PKS cadres or sympathizers who pose as PKS, do everything possible to save this ship, ship captains command always pursued simultaneously, ranging from the existence of the Zionist Conspiracy, Conspiracy America, there is even one song ship captain who said that the storm that hit the PKS like the story of Prophet Yusuf.

As usual, ship captains song always run with the best, then without command again, PKS cadres blind taqlid, writing stories vying virtual world, affecting even the bribery case of former president's rather like the story of Prophet Yusuf.

Analogize bribery case crispy beef imports that hit Ustaz Lutfi Hasan bearded Isaaq with the story of Prophet Yusuf, the analogy of this story, of course, beyond our common sense, how can the Prophet Joseph could be equated with the figure Lutfi Hasan Isaaq.

Joseph was a man of God, Man of God who became the leader of the people and events that happened to the Prophet Joseph was a test from God, then how could the man of God may be likened to Lutfi Hasan Isaaq who caught bribery beef, if you want to talk honestly, the case of PKS and Ustaz Lutfi Hasan Isaaq is actually a punishment from God, as the word of God, which reads:

Except ye thankful we definitely will add favor to you and if you deny the favor to azabku very painful indeed. (Q.s. Ibrahim: 7)

Why could PKS storms bribery and Lutfi Hasan Isaaq made prisoner by the Commission, all of which have originated from the pleasure they can but they are grateful for the enjoyment of it, because they are not grateful for the favors God has given them, then according to the promise of God, which occurred azablah on them.

They claim to be the party's propaganda, they claim to be a clean and caring party, but behind the ignorance of their true behavior, only the almighty Allah who knows anything we do not know.

The disclosure of the bribery case crispy beef imports hit bearded PKS and make Lutfi Hasan Isaaq as a prisoner, not a Zionist conspiracy, not the American conspiracy. This is the unfolding bribery case intervention Allah almighty knows that behind jargon clean and care it turns out there is hypocrisy there.

Imagery associated with the storm that hit the PKS and Ustaz Lutfi Hasan Isaaq like the story of Prophet Yusuf, obviously this parable is a form of humiliation or degrading the PKS cadres Story of Prophet Yusuf, PKS hide behind this story, and as if the storm that hit the PKS and Ustaz Lutfi Hasan Isaaq about events it has also been experienced by the Prophet Joseph.

Though the events of the story of Prophet Yusuf until such severe ordeal was a test from Allah, and contrary events of the PKS and Ustaz Lutfi Hasan Isaaq, the events that took place was actually a punishment from Allah SWT and not the result of a Zionist conspiracy and American conspiracy that can not be proven to this day by the originators PKS President Anis Matta.

May 22, 2013

In Indonesia. How do you Think about This? Lawyers Uztaz Lutfi Not Know about 'Pustun'.

Pustun words mean in the chat between the former President of the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS – Partai Keadilan Sejahtera), Ustaz Lutfi Hasan Ishaaq, and those close to him, Ahmad fathanah, yet to be revealed. When asked about this pustun said, Ustaz Lutfi lawyer, M Assegaf, said he did not know.

"We do not know. I do not know. Said it was a trending topic," said Assegaf when accompanying his client examined in Building Commission, Kuningan, Jakarta, Monday (20/05/2013).

Assegaf claims he never heard from his client about the explanation for the recorded conversations with fathanah Rogan played at the Corruption Court on Friday (05/17/2013) is. "I do not ever. Suddenly in the trial that actually broadcast is not relevant," said Assegaf.

In the trial of the alleged bribery beef import quota which took place in Jakarta Corruption Court on Friday last week, a team of prosecutors Corruption Eradication Commission plays a recording of an alleged conversation between Ustaz Lutfi and fathanah chat. Besides revealing about the plan administration fee of USD 40 billion, a record showing intimacy between Ustaz Lutfi and fathanah. Chat about wife, among others.

"The wives of yourselves (Ustaz Lutfi) has been waiting for all," said fathanah to Ustaz Lutfi with a chuckle.

Ustaz Lutfi also replied with a laugh fathanah greeting and said, "Which is it?"

"There's everything," said fathanah.

Ustaz Lutfi asked again, "What pustun-pustun what sarkia Java?"

"Pustun," said fathanah followed by laughter from both men.

Not yet known what words mean and Java pustun sarkia in recording the conversation. If traced, the Pashtun pustun or designation could mean for the people of Pakistan, Afghanistan, or ethnic origin in Iran. The term can be seen as a Java sarkia two words put together. Java refers to the Javanese, while sarkia in Arabic means sarkiyah which means east. If combined, could mean sarkiah Java East Java.

 Ustaz Lutfi (Talking with Microphone)
Ustaz Fatanah (Friend of Ustaz Lutfi)

In Indonesia :: Corruption has been an Ustaz. Ustaz, Who is Darin.

Asked about Darin Mumtazah, Lutfi Just Glance

Former President of the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS - Partai Keadilan Sejahtera) Lutfi Hasan Ishaaq declined to comment when asked about Darin Mumtazah, students examined the KPK as a witness in his case. KPK set Lutfi as suspects in the alleged corruption and money laundering beef import quota recommendations it just glanced at reporters when asked the name of Darin, Tuesday (21/05/2013).

Lutfi out of the Building Commission, Kuningan, Jakarta, at around 20:50 after the examination. As usual, the former number one in the MCC just smiled as he raised his hands when mowed reporters' questions. Lutfi got into the car ready to bring prisoners back to the House of Detention Guntur, South Jakarta.

When Rogan was sitting in the car detainees, a journalist with a loud voice asked again about Darin. "Ustaz, Darin's who?" said one reporter. The question was as loud journalist Lutfi surprising. He briefly glanced at the reporters. Then he raised his hand back as if to say "enough" when re-mowed questions other journalists.KPK twice summoned for questioning as a witness Darin Lutfi. However, Darin has never meet KPK summons. In the first call, Darin did not come because KPK summons was not until her examination. Then on the second call, Darin was absent without explanation alias defaulters.

Based on the record, Darin was first called the Commission on 12 April 2013. When Darin was called as a witness along with two wives Lutfi, Sutiana Astika and Lusi Tiarani Agustine. They examined as a witness who knows about the flow of assets considered Lutfi.

Because it is not present, the Commission had to reschedule the call Darin on May 17, 2013. However, one of the students in vocational high schools that do not meet the re-examination of the KPK summons. Not yet known exactly how far Darin relationship with Lutfi.

Based on the search in KPK, Darin allegedly has close ties with Lutfi. When confirmed, KPK spokesman Johan Budi said in a letter that Darin status vocation is a student.

"I do not know the relationship between Darin and LHI (Rogan), an investigator who knows, in a written summons as a student," he said.Johan also claimed to have not received information on whether there are assets that diatasnamakan Lutfi Darin or the flow of funds to the students of SMK's (High School) Rogan.

May 2, 2013

Development of new theories about Stonehenge

A new research revealed, the hunters lived only about 1.6 miles from Stonehenge, 5,000 years before the first stone is upheld. Evidence reinforces the conclusion obtained from a site near Stonehenge.
The site, which has been inhabited for 3,000 years, contains evidence of burning, ancient cattle bones and stone tools. Possibly, the area near Stonehenge was an ancient migration paths cow has become a party sites antiquity - that people arriving from different directions.
As stated by David Jacques from the Open University in the UK in an email. "We may just have to know the reason the construction of Stonehenge, and why its location there."
These new findings may help identify those who first establish the structure of Stonehenge. Some large stones, perhaps the totem pole, enforced at Stonehenge between 8500 and 10 thousand years ago. The new research says, may be the ancient structure was erected to honor the sacred hunting grounds.
Over the decades, people have wondered about the big rocks in Wiltshire, England. No one knew the reason ancient building was erected. Some say, it is a place of worship. Some are saying, it is a symbol of unity. Some even say Stonehenge inspired sound illusion.
David Jacques was looking through old pictures of the area surrounding Stonehenge when he saw a site (Vespasian's Camp), which is only 1.6 km. She began investigating the area, which has a freshwater spring.
Because animals like to stop by in the spring, perhaps curious Jacques area was also inhabited by humans. His team found, there are about 350 animal bones and stone tools 12,500, and evidence of arson. Expected, the area was inhabited by humans at 7,500 BC to 4,700 BC - about 5,000 years before the alias Stonehenge stone enforced.
"The spring may initially attract the attention of the animal, which eventually triggers the hunting and guiding us to the possibility that the area is a sacred hunting ground," wrote Jacques.
The discovery could help scientists figure out why the ancient people who now choose the location of Stonehenge, said Jackques.

May 1, 2013


The acquisition of assertiveness behavior is not specific to any discrete stage of childhood development but instead is a function of instruction, modeling, and rehearsal. Assertive behavior is acquired, practiced and refined as the individual develops. Problems with assertiveness can occur early in development in the form of overly shy or aggressive behavior, and later as social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder. In outlining the facts about assertiveness, we have chosen to outline problem sets that can be conceptualized as due at least in part, to a deficit in assertiveness.

Prevalence. Low levels of assertive behavior, as evidenced by the presence of social anxiety disorder, is a highly prevalent problem. It is estimated that nearly 13.3% of all people in the US suffer from social anxiety at some point in their lives (Kessler et al., 1994). Social phobia is most prevalent amount people who are young (18–29 years of age), undereducated, single, and of lower socioeconomic status; social phobia is slightly less prevalent among the elderly (Magee, Eaton, Wittchen, Duckworth, M. P. & Mercer, V. (2006). McConagle, & Kessler, 1996). Avoidant personality disorder occurs in less than 1% of the general population (Reich, Yates, & Nduaguba, 1989; Zimmerman, & Coryell, 1990). Displays of aggressive behavior may be relatively common, yet the prevalence of extreme aggression as evidenced by the presence of antisocial personality disorder is relatively rare, occurring in only about 1–3% of the general population (Sutker, Bugg, & West, 1993).

Age at onset. Extreme shyness is known to be present in a large percentage of children. The mean age at onset for social phobia is 16 years old. The age at onset for social phobia occurs later than the onset for simple phobias but earlier than the onset for agoraphobia (Ost, 1987). Studies have found that the number of children with social phobia is increasing (Magee, et al., 1996). Aggression also appears to be expressed in early adolescence. In a study of African-American and Hispanic adolescent males it was found that children who had high levels of externalized behavio problems also tended to assert themselves in a hostile manner (Florsheim, Tolan & Gorman-Smith, 1996).

Gender. Although a larger percentage of men evidence assertive behavior than women men are also more likely to engage in aggressive behavior (Eagly & Steffen, 1986). Extreme aggression, as sometimes captured by antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, is significantly more common in men (Dulit, Marin, & Frances, 1993; Sutker et al., 1993). Although women are represented more frequently among populations of persons experiencing anxiety disorders, social anxiety disorder occurs with relatively equal frequency across women and men. The gender ratio for social anxiety disorder is 1.4 to 1.0, females to males. Avoidant personality disorder also occurs equally across women and men. Taken together, these findings suggest that assertiveness may be an appropriate technique for men and women who engage in overly passive or overly aggressive behaviors.

Course. Extreme passivity, as captured by social phobia, begins in adolescence increases into the late 20s, and then declines in later life (Magee et al., 1996). Extreme aggression, as captured by antisocial personality disorder, begins in adolescence in the form of conduct disorder, increases through the 20s, and then decreases across the 40s (Hare, McPherson, & Forth, 1988).

Impairment and other demographic characteristics. Level of impairment is indicated by the problems experienced by people who are represented at the extremes of the assertiveness continuum. Problems associated with extreme passivity, can range from being bullied to experiencing repeat victimization by partners. Problems associated with aggression can range from suspension of privileges in childhood to serious negative legal consequences in adulthood.

There are differential finding for the impact of assertive behavior among ethnic groups, the impact seems entangled with socioeconomic status and culturally specific styles of communication (Malagady, Rogler, & Cortes, 1996; Zane, Sue, Hu, & Kwon, 1991). Social phobia is found to be equally prevalent among ethnic groups (Magee et al., 1996).

Given that assertive behavior occurs as a part of a broader interaction complex, the likelihood that an individual will engage in assertive behavior is a function of skill and performance competencies, reinforcement contingencies, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative factors. Behavioral explanations for the use of passive or aggressive strategies rather than assertive strategies emphasize opportunities for skills acquisition and mastery and reinforcement contingencies that have supported the use of passive or aggressive behaviors over time. Behavioral conceptualizations for passivity often emphasize early learning environments in which passive responding may have been modeled (e.g., care givers who were themselves anxious, shy, or in some other way less than assertive) or more assertive behavior punished (e.g., overly protective or dominating care givers). In the absence of opportunities for acquisition and reinforcement of other interaction strategies, passive behavior persists. Important to any complete behavioral conceptualization of passive behavior would be an evaluation of the reinforcement that is associated with current displays of passive behavior, that is, how is passivity currently “working” for the individual? Behaviors that are reinforced are repeated. Repeated engagement in passive behavior suggests repeated reinforcement of such behavior. Passive responding may be reinforced through the avoidance of responsibility and decision-making. With what amount of attention, positive or negative, are passive responses met? The individual employing passive strategies may need to reconcile his or her “active” influence on situations with the alleged passivity.

Aggressive behaviors can be learned through the observation of aggressive models and reinforced through their instrumental effects. Even in the absence of overt goal attainment, aggressive behaviors may be experienced as intrinsically reinforcing by virtue of the autonomic discharge associated with such behaviors. Aggressive behavior may serve as a socially sanctioned interaction style (Tedeschi & Felson, 1994). Aggressive behavior may also be a consequence of the absence of opportunities to acquire alternative social interaction strategies. Motivational-affective factors are important to patterned displays of passive and aggressive behavior. Although the affective experience of anger is not sufficien to explain aggressive behavior, feelings of anger do increase the likelihood that the actions of others will be experienced as aggressive and, thereby, elicit aggressive behavior.

Cognitive explanations for passive and aggressive responding would posit that outcome expectations are primary in determining the passive or aggressive response. The passive individual may look to the history of failures in making and/or refusing requests in deciding whether to attempt the ecommended assertive behavior. Outcome expectations may interfere with adoption of the “new” assertiveness. Such outcome expectations must be managed if the likelihood of assertive responding is to increase. The passive individual needs to be cautioned regarding the imperfect relationship between assertive responding and desired outcomes.

Initially, assertive responses may not meet with desired outcomes. It is the persistence of the assertive response that will ensure that the probability of the desired outcome increases over time. In the short run, then, the measure of successful assertion may not be the occurrence of a desired outcome but the mere assertive communication of one’s opinions, needs and/or limits.

Communication :: Assertive Training :: ASSESSMENT

What should be Ruled Out?
Assertiveness appears to be of differential utility in the context of domestic violence. Some research suggests that battered women are potentially at increased risk as a result of assertive behavior in the context of ongoing domestic violence (O’Leary, Curley, Rosenbaum & Clarke, 1985). On the other hand, assertiveness training has been found to contribute to a woman’s decision to leave a violent relationship (Meyers-Abell, & Jansen, 1980). Research addressing male batterers suggests that batterers have assertiveness deficits that may contribute to there use of aggression and violence to express their needs and manage the needs of their domestic partner (Maiuro, Cahn, & Vitiliano, 1986). In the context of female sexual victimization, assertiveness training appears to empower women and reduce their exposure to violence (Mac Greene & Navarro, 1998).

What is Involved in Effective Assessment?
Assessment of assertiveness skills and performance abilities should be broad enough to capture and distinguish among various explanations for performance failure. Traditionally, a hierarchical task analysis is used to determine the causal variable that accounts for the skill/performance deficit (Dow, 1994). Initially assertiveness skills are evaluated in a nonthreatening (or less threatening) environment. Given that the client demonstrates adequate assertiveness skill in the nonthreatening environment, assertiveness skills are evaluated in the context of more clinically relevant social situations. Given that skills are adequately performed in clinically relevant social situations, other contributions to response failure are evaluated including affective and cognitive variables that might mediate the skill–performance relation. 
Behavioral models of depression suggest that the pursuit of social interaction (and, thus, experience of reinforcement) may be limited by negative affective experiences that are present throughout the interaction (Lewinsohn, 1974). For example, anxiety that is experienced during an assertive interaction may be insufficient to impair performance but may be sufficient to render the interaction a punishing rather than reinforcing event. Assertive behaviors presuppose the existence of adequate social skills. An assertive communication is measured not only by the content of the verbalization but also by the accompanying nonverbal behaviors. Appropriate posture and eyecontact are essential in executing an appropriately assertive response. An appropriately assertive posture would convey relaxed but focused attention, this posture contrasted with an overly rigid posture that might convey either anxiety or obstinacy. 

Other important nonverbal behaviors include facial expression and body movements and gestures. Affective displays should be congruent with the content of the assertive communication, not suggesting anxiety, false gaiety, or anger. Body movements that indicate nervousness and uncertainty (e.g. hand-wringing) should be avoided. Movements that convey anger or dominance (e.g., invasion of the other’s personal space) should also be avoided. These nonverbal behaviors are included among behaviors identified by Dow (1985) as relevant to socially skilled behaving.

The content of the assertive communication is important in its clarity and form. The tone and fluidity of the request, command or refusal are also important. Generally, the assertive request is characterized by its reasonableness, its specificity regarding actions required to fulfill the request, and its inclusion of statements that convey the potential impact(s) of request fulfillment for both the individual making the request and the request recipient. The tone in which the request is delivered should convey the importance of the request; however, the tone should not imply some obligation on the part of the request recipient to comply with the request. The content and tone of assertive refusals share the quality of being evenhanded and unwavering.
Assessment of skill sets and performance competencies is necessary prior to skills training and throughout the skills acquisition/practice process. Skills for assertive behaving are evaluated through the use of self-report instruments as well as behavioral observation in contrived and natural settings.

Clinician-administered measures. Generally evaluations of assertive behavior involve observations of skill displays (e.g., communication, social interactions) in clinical, analogue, and natural settings, rather than using clinically administere measures of assertiveness. 

Observational ratings of skill assets, deficits, and mastery made by the treating clinician can be formalized by systematically targeting all nonverbal and verbal behaviors considered relevant to assertive behaving. There are structured clinical interviews that assess diagnostic features of anxiety, the reader is referred to the social anxiety disorder chapter in this text for that information.

Self-report measures. Assertiveness skill evaluation and training often occurs in the broader context of social skill and social competence. The self-report instruments that purport to measure assertiveness range from actual measures of assertive behaviors to instruments that assess related constructs such as social avoidance, self-esteem, and locus of control. The most commonly used measur of assertiveness skills is the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (Rathus, 1973). 

Self-monitoring of social behaviors performed in the client’s natural environment is essential to both assessment and treatment of potential skills and performance deficits. Monitoring instructions usually require that the client describe their social interactions with others along a number of dimensions. The client may be instructed to briefly describe interactions with males versus females, acquaintances versus intimate others, peers versus persons in authority, and in structured versus unstructured interactions.

Although real world evaluation of skills is preferable, the office is the most common arena for skills evaluation and practice. Therefore it is essential that the client provide detailed accounts of problem interactions and that the content and cues of the experimental arena be as consistent with that real world as possible.

Behavioral assessment. Behavioral observation is considered the preferred strategy for evaluating assertiveness skills and performance competencies. Usually observations/evaluations of assertive performances are made in clinical or research settings rather than real world settings. Clinic and laboratory settings provide contexts for informal observation (waiting room behaviors and behaviors engaged in by the client during the clinical interview) and formal observation (social interactiontasks and role-plays) of an individual’s behavior.
Clinical interview. In the clinical setting, the client’s waiting room behavior (i.e., his/her interactions with other persons in the waiting room and with clinic staff) is available for observation. Exchanges had during initial assessment sessions also serve as data to be used in establishing the presence or absence of verbal and nonverbal communication skills considered essential to assertive displays as well as contextual/situational/interpersonal factors that may influence the likelihood of assertive behaving and the mastery with which assertive behaviors are performed.
Social interaction tasks in analog settings. In evaluating a client’s social skill and comfort, the therapist may enlist confederates to engage the client in interactions that test the client’s ability to initiate and participate in casual exchanges. These tasks are considered low demand tasks. Usually, these tasks do not contain any of the elements of identified problematic interactions.
Social interaction tasks in real-world settings. Of course, the optimal arena for evaluating assertive behavior is the client’s natural environment. As often as possible, the real world context should be captured. 

For example, a male client reporting difficulty initiating social interactions with female peers might be observed in real world settings that are familiar to him and that present opportunities for contact with female peers (e.g., the college library, an undergraduate seminar, a scheduled, on-campus extracurricular event). Other local contact arenas are also acceptable for evaluation of skills including coffee houses, dance clubs, etc.

Role-plays. In the clinical context, a “true” observation of assertive behaviors is made through the use of role-playing. Based on the client’s report of difficult interpersonal interactions/exchanges, interaction opportunities that mimic these difficult interpersonal interactions (to a lesser or greater degree) are engineered and the client’s use of assertive behaviors observed. Typically, the therapist serves as the “relevant other” in such role play situations. Research participants or clients are asked to display their skills repertoire in the context of contrived interactions with the researcher/therapist or some confederate. 

In structuring the role play, the therapist aims to lessen the artificial quality of the role play and to strengthen the correlation/correspondence/reliability between the client’s performance in artificial and natural settings. This is best achieved through the use of dialogue and contextual cues that most closely approximate the naturally occurring problematic interactions. Role-play confederates and scenarios are often selected with relevant contextual factors in mind.


Assertive behavior usually centers on making requests of others and refusing requests made by others that have been judged to be unreasonable. Assertive behavior also captures the communication of strong opinions and feelings. Assertive communication of personal opinions, needs and boundaries has been defined as communication that diminishes none of the individuals involved in the interaction, with emphasis placed on communication accuracy and respect for all persons engaged in the exchange.

Assertiveness is conceptualized as the behavioral middle ground, lying between ineffective passive and aggressive responses. Passiveness is characterized by an over attention to the opinions and needs of others and the masking or restraining of personal opinions and needs. This over-attention to and compliance with the opinions and needs of others may serve as a strategy for conflict avoidance and/or maintenance of particular sources of social “reinforcement.” Aggressiveness often involves the imposition of one’s opinions and requirements on another individual. Implicit in the discussion of assertiveness is the suggestion that assertive behavior is the universally preferred behavioral alternative, and that assertive behavior necessarily leads to preferred outcomes. 

The degree to which assertive behaviors are to be considered superior to either a passive or an aggressive stance is determined by the situational context. The success of assertiveness does not always lie in tangible outcomes (e.g., request fulfillment). The success of assertiveness sometimes lies in the degree of personal control and personal respect that is achieved and maintained throughout the assertive exchange.

Pameran :: Kafan Turin Dipamerkan di Tengah Riset Baru

Pada hari Sabtu, Kafan Turin (The Shroud of Turin) dipamerkan dalam pertunjukan spesial di televisi di Vatikan, di tengah beredarnya hasil riset baru yang membantah klaim bahwa kain itu palsu. Riset baru itu juga mengatakan, kain itu berasal dari masa yang sama dengan kematian Yesus.

Paus Fransiskus mengirim pesan video khusus ke acara di katedral Turin, tetapi tidak berkomentar mengenai apakah gambar pria di Kain Kafan Turin itu benar-benar Yesus. Paus menyebut kain itu sebuah “ikon”, bukan relik alias peninggalan sejarah. Ini perbedaan kecil tapi penting.

“Gambar ini, yang tertera di kain, berbicara kepada hati kita dan menggerakkan kita untuk mendaki bukit Golgota … serta menenggelamkan diri kita dalam keheningan cinta yang agung,” katanya.

“Wajah rusak ini adalah wajah para pria dan wanita yang tersakiti oleh kehidupan yang tidak menghargai kehormatan mereka, oleh perang dan kekerasan yang menyengsarakan kaum lemah,” katanya. “Dan pada saat yang sama, wajah di Kafan menyampaikan kedamaian; tubuh yang tersiksa ini mengekspresikan keagungan.”

Banyak ahli meyakini hasil pengukuran karbon (carbon-dating) terhadap kain itu, yang mengatakan bahwa kain itu berasal dari abad ke-13 atau ke-14. Meski demikian, beberapa pihak mengatakan mungkin saja kain itu telah tercemar dan perlu ada sampel analisis lebih besar.

Selama ini, pihak Vatikan telah berhati-hati dalam menyikapi kain itu. Mereka menyebutnya lambang penderitaan Yesus, tetapi tidak berkomentar mengenai keaslian kain itu.

Kain dengan panjang 4,3 meter dan lebar 1 meter itu disimpan dalam kotak khusus yang tahan peluru di katedral Turin, tetapi jarang ditampilkan ke publik. Terakhir kali Kafan Turin diperlihatkan pada tahun 2010.

Penampilan Kafan Turin pada hari Sabtu bertepatan dengan peluncuran buku “The Mystery of the Shroud” yang mengatakan, kain itu berasal dari abad pertama. Hasil riset itu diambil berdasarkan tes mekanis dan kimiawi terhadap serat material kain.

Economic :: Labour Day in Australia

Labour Day, also known as Eight Hours Day in Tasmania and May Day in the Northern Territory, commemorates the granting of the eight-hour working day for Australians. It also recognizes workers’ contributions towards the nation’s economy. It is an annual public holiday and its date varies across the states and territories. 

What do people do

Many people use the Labour Day holiday as part of a long weekend where they can relax, spend time with friends or family members, play or watch sport, have barbecues. Some people plan a getaway trip to a coastal region, the mountains or the countryside where they can engage in various activities such as picnics, wine-tasting at a winery, bush-walking, or camping.

Throughout the nation, Labour Day is an occasion for unions, community groups and the general public to join in celebration. In Queensland’s capital city of Brisbane there are marches are held on or around Labour Day. They are often led by the state’s key political leaders and influential key figures. Union members often take part in these marches.

Public life

Labour Day is a public holiday in all states and territories in Australia. It is observed in Western Australia on the first Monday in March and on the second Monday in March in Victoria and Tasmania. It is celebrated in the Northern Territory and Queensland on the first Monday in May. It is held on the first Monday of October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia.

During this holiday government offices are closed, as are post offices, schools and many businesses. Those planning on using public transport on this holiday need to check with the local transport authorities prior to travelling.


The history of Labour Day in Australia spans over a century. It is an important annual event that remembers those who struggled and succeeded to ensure decent and fair working conditions in Australia. During the mid to late 1800s the working day was long and arduous, where some employees would work up to 12 hours a day, six days a week.
Many Australians saw the need for better working conditions and in the 1850s there was a strong push for this. On April 21, 1856, stonemasons at the University of Melbourne marched to Parliament House to push for an eight-hour working day. An agreement with employers for a 48-hour week was eventually reached and Australian workers welcomed the new eight-hour day. A victory march was held on May 12 that year and each year after that. In 1856 the new work regulations were recognized in New South Wales, followed by Queensland in 1858 and South Australia in 1873.

In 1874, Tasmania joined the other states in adopting the shorter eight-hour working day. In 1879 the Victorian Government made one further step towards better conditions for employees by proclaiming a paid public holiday that year. In light of the labour movement’s successful push for an eight-hour day, a large May Day meeting was held in Melbourne in 1890. On May 1 that year a local newspaper made reference to that day as May Day.

One of the first May Day/Labour Day marches in Australia occurred on May 1, 1891 in Queensland. More than 1000 people participated in the march and carried banners. The leaders wore blue sashes and the Eureka flag was carried. It was reported that cheers were given for “the eight-hour day”. The Labour Day date was moved from May to the second Monday in March in some parts of Australia after World War II.  Since 1948, Labour Day in Western Australia has been observed on the first Monday in March. It marks the granting of the eight hour working day to Western Australians.

Communication :: Assertive Training :: TREATMENT

What Treatments are Effective?
Assertiveness training, when employed as part of a more comprehensive cognitivebehavioral therapy package, is useful for the treatment of people whose lack of assertiveness skills manifests behavior appears as either passivity or aggression. When the absence of assertive behavior is explained by affective or cognitive factors rather than a skills deficit, other strategies are recommended as adjuncts to of assertiveness skills training and practice. 

Examples of such strategies include relaxation training to reduce performance inhibiting anxiety or anger, cognitive restructuring to challenge negative performance predictions and overgeneralizations regarding performance errors, and cognitive reframing with respect to performance goals and measures of performance success.

What are Effective Self-Help Treatments?
There are a plethora of self-help resources available to clients interested in self-initiated efforts towards assertive behaving. These resources are largely in the form of assertiveness training books and internet site targeted directly at the lay person. Although the effectiveness of any individual resource is generally not available to the client he or she may rely on the credentials of the authors or site hosts (e.g., authors who emphasize empirical research and universities as site hosts) to guide their selection of self-help materials.

Self-help books.

● Alberti, R. E. & Emmons, M. L. (2001). Your perfect right: Assertiveness and equality in your life and relationships (8th ed.). Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers.
● Burton, S., & Shelton, N. (1993). Assertiveness skills. New York: McGraw-Hill.
● Davidson, J. (1997). The complete idiot’s guide to assertiveness (1st ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books.
● Dire, W. (1978). Pulling your own strings: Dynamic techniques for dealing with other people and living your life as you choose. New York: Harper Collins.
● Gabor, D. (2001). How to start a conversation and make friends. New York: Fireside.
● Magee, S, & Pachter, B. (2001). The power of positive confrontation: The skills you needto know to handle conflicts at work, at home, and in life. New York: Marlowe & Company.
● McKay, M., Rogers, P. D., & McKay, J. (2003). When anger hurts: Quieting the storm within, (2nd ed.) Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
● Nay, W. R. (2004). Taking charge of anger: How to resolve conflict, sustain relationships, and express yourself without losing control. New York: The Guilford Press.
● Paterson, R. J. (2000). The assertiveness workbook: How to express your idea and stand up for yourself at work and in relationships. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
● Petracek, L. J. (2004). The anger workbook for women. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Press.
● Valentis, J., & Valentis, M. (2001). Brave new you: 12 dynamic strategies for saying what you want and being who you are. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Self help websites.
● http://www.couns.msu.ed untuk self-help/index.htm (Michigan State University Counseling Center)
● http://www.uiowa.ed untuk ~ucs/asertcom.html (University of Iowa Counseling Services)
● http://www.uwec.ed untuk counsel/pubs/assertivecommunication.htm (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Counseling Center)
● http://www.couns.uiuc.ed untuk Brochures/assertiv.htm (University of Illinois Counseling Services)
● http://oregonstate.ed untuk dept/counsel/assertivenessskills.html (Oregon State University Counseling Department)
● http://www.utexas.ed untuk student/cmhc/booklets/assert/assertive.html (University of Texas at Austin Counseling and Mental Health Center)
● http://www.twu.ed untuk o-sl/counseling (Texas Woman’s University Counseling Center)
● (American Management Association)

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