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Dec 31, 2008

Polycom – SoundPoint IP330 - Unsupported XHTML Elements – Section 02

Link Tags

a—Defines an anchor.

The following attributes are not supported: charset,

coords, hreflang, rel, rev, shape, target, type, id, class,

title, style, dir, lang, xml:lang, tabindex, and accesskey.

link—Defines a resource reference.

Frame Tags

frame—Defines a sub window (frame).

frameset—Defines a set of frames.

noframes—Defines a noframe section.

iframe—Defines an inline sub window (frame).

Input Tags

form—Defines a form.

The following attributes are not supported: accept,

accept charset, enctype, target, class, id, style, title, dir,

lang, and accesskey.

input—Defines an input field.

The following attributes are not supported: accept, align,

alt, disabled, maxlength, readonly, size, arc,

type:button, type:file, type:image, class, is, style, title,

dir, lang, accesskey.

textarea—Defines a text area.

button—Defines a push button.

select—Defines a selectable list.

optgroup—Defines an option group.

option—Defines an item in a list box.

label—Defines a label for a form control.

fieldset—Defines a fieldset.

legend—Defines a title in a fieldset.

isindex—Deprecated. Defines a single-line input


List Tags

ul—Defines an unordered list.

ol—Defines an ordered list.

li—Defines a list item.

dir—Deprecated. Defines a directory list.

dl—Defines a definition list.

dt—Defines a definition term.

dd—Defines a definition description.

menu—Deprecated. Defines a menu list.

Dec 30, 2008

Polycom – SoundPoint IP330 - Unsupported XHTML Elements – Section 01

The unsupported elements and attributes are:

Basic Tags

html—Defines HTML document.

body—Defines documents’ body.

h1 to h6—Defines header 1 to header 6.

p—Defines a paragraph.

br—Inserts a single line break.

hr—Defines a horizontal rule.

Character Format Tags

b—Defines bold text.

font—Deprecated. Defines text font, size, and color.

i—Defines italic text..

em—Defines emphasized text.

big—Defines big text.

strong—Defines strong text.

small—Defines small text.

sup—Defines superscripted text.

sub—Defines subscripted text.

bdo—Defines the direction of text display.

u—Deprecated. Defines underlined text.

Output Tags pre—Defines preformatted text.

code—Defines computer code text.

tt—Defines teletype text.

kbd—Defines keyboard text.

var—Defines a variable.

dfn—Defines a definition term.

samp—Defines sample computer code.

xmp—Deprecated. Defines preformatted text.

Block Tags

acronym—Defines an acronym.

abbr—Defines an abbreviation.

address—Defines an address element.

blockquote—Defines a long quotation.

center—Deprecated. Defines centered text.

q—Defines a short quotation.

cite—Defines a citation.

ins—Defines inserted text.

del—Defines deleted text.

s—Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text.

strike—Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text.

Dec 29, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 06

1. What advantage does a failover cluster provide?

If one node in the cluster fails, the other node or nodes can continue doing the work the failed node was doing.

2. What technique allows the two nodes in a failover cluster to beproductive at the same time?

Active-active clustering allows both nodes to perform useful work. In the event that one node fails, the remaining node picks up the entire workload of both.

3. What are two examples of Microsoft server applications that arecluster-aware?

Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Exchange Server.

4. What are the basic requirements for an application to be cluster-compatible?

It must use TCP/IP to communicate with its clients; it must allow its data to be stored separate from its executable files; and its client software must tolerate brief timeouts during a cluster failover.

5. What server name should you connect to in order to manage a cluster?

The virtual server name that the cluster uses, rather than the individual names of the cluster nodes.

6. What service provides clustering appropriate for Web servers?

Network Load Balancing (NLB) provides a form of clustering and load balancing suitable for Web servers.

7. What is the difference between a certificate authority that youcreate and a commercial certificate authority like VeriSign?

Users’ Web browsers are preconfigured to trust certificates issued by VeriSign. They are not preconfigured to trust certificates issued by your own CA.

8. What basic certificate-issuing policy is included with CertificateServices?

The basic policy can be configured to immediately issue certificates or to wait for an administrator to approve a certificate before issuing it.

9. What are digital certificates used for?

Digital signatures, identification, and encryption.

10. What is the difference between a symmetric key and an asymmetric key?

A symmetric key’s two halves are identical and must be protected in order for the key to remain secure because either half can be used to encrypt or decrypt. An asymmetric key’s halves are different, and the public half does not need to be protected.

11. When should you conduct a performance baseline?

When your servers are first configured and placed into a normal production environment.

12. What is the purpose of performance trending?

To monitor performance over time so that you can predict when performance will fall below acceptable levels before it actually happens.

13. What are the four main areas of a computer that create performance bottlenecks?

Memory, network throughput, hard disk throughput, and processor speed.

14. What are the key elements in fine-tuning a file server’s performance?

Hard disk throughput and network throughput.

15. What are the key elements in fine-tuning an application server’s performance?

Memory, network throughput, hard disk throughput, and processor speed.

16. What are the key elements in fine-tuning Terminal Services performance?

Memory, processor speed, and, to a lesser degree, hard disk throughput.

Dec 28, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 05

1. What VPN protocol offers a more secure tunnel by encrypting more of the transmitted data?

The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), combined with IP Security (IPSec), makes it impossible for eavesdroppers to determine what VPN protocol is in use by encrypting more of the transmitted data.

2. Which VPN protocol provides both tunneling and encryption?

The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).

3. What Windows Server 2003 service accepts VPN connections?

Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS).

4. How can firewalls affect a VPN?

Firewalls can block the TCP ports required by VPNs. They can also block the General Routing Encapsulation (GRE) protocol that VPNs use, and fire-walls using Network Address Translation (NAT) can defeat GRE’s encapsulation techniques.

5. What protocols allow RRAS to talk to network routers and exchange routing information?

Routing protocols, including Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

6. What server platforms do not include Internet Connection Sharing?

Web Server, Enterprise Server, and Datacenter Server.

7. How can RRAS act as a basic port-filtering firewall?

You can configure input and output filters to permit or deny only specific traffic on a server’s network interfaces.

8. How can RRAS act as an Internet gateway?

By configuring RRAS in Internet Server mode.

9. How can you quickly obtain statistics about your network based on data that you capture with Network Monitor?

By running one or more analysis Experts within Network Monitor.

10. How can you obtain the full version of Network Monitor?

It is included with Microsoft Systems Management Server and certain Microsoft Official Curriculum training courses.

11. What data can you capture with Network Monitor?

Any information that is transmitted on the network segment that your server is connected to. The version of Network Monitor included with Windows Server 2003 captures only traffic that is sent to or from the server or that is broadcast to the entire segment.

12. How can Network Monitor be used as a troubleshooting tool?

Network Monitor enables you to capture and analyze network traffic. If you know how the various protocols on your network should work, you can use Network Monitor to determine which ones are not working correctly and why.

13. When does Windows Server 2003 perform a system snapshot or checkpoint?

On a regular basis, when you perform a manual checkpoint, or when you install new software or device drivers.

14. What files does Automatic System Recovery restore for you?

Only operating system files.

15. Where can you back up system state data using Windows Backup?

Either to a disk-based file, or to a locally attached tape device.

16. What type of backup includes all of the files on your computer that have changed that day?

A Daily backup.

17. If your computer crashes before you log on, what is a good first step in troubleshooting the problem?

Restart by using the Last Known Good configuration.

18. How can you revert to a previous version of a device driver?

By using Device Manager to perform a device driver roll back.

19. How can you create a customized Safe Mode startup environment that only includes drivers known to work correctly on your server?

By creating hardware profiles and disabling any questionable drivers in the new profile.

20. How can you enable or disable drivers in a hardware profile?

By starting the server with that profile and then using Device Manager to enable or disable the appropriate drivers.

21. What effect does a full Security Event Log have on your server?

By default, Windows does not overwrite events in the Security Event Log until they are at least seven days old. If the log fills and Windows cannot overwrite any events, Windows shuts down.

22. How can you remove a hotfix from your server?

By using Add/Remove Programs on the Control Panel to uninstall the hotfix.

23. How can you deploy new copies of Windows Server 2003 that include the latest service pack?

By using the service pack’s slipstream option to update a disk-based copy of the Windows Server 2003 CD’s contents.

24. How does disk defragmentation improve system performance?

By arranging files so they occupy contiguous spaces on disk, which makes it easier for the disk drive to read a file into the server’s memory.

Dec 27, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 04

1. What three properties can IIS use to distinguish between multiple virtual Web sites on a single server?
IP address, host header, and port number.

2. What four types of sites can you set up in IIS?
Web sites (HTTP), FTP sites, NNTP sites, and SMTP sites.

3. What is the primary use for an IIS SMTP site?
To allow Web applications running on the IIS server to send e-mail.

4. How can you prevent anonymous users from accessing a particular file on an IIS Web site?
Configure NTFS permissions on the file and specify the users and groups that should have access to it.

5. What is the default TCP port for an IIS Web site?
Port 80.

6. Why are FTP sites used when HTTP offers similar file download capabilities?
FTP sites offer upload capability and are more easily used by automated upload and download scripts that many organizations use to exchange data on a regular basis.

7. What client software enables users to interact with an NNTP site?
Any newsreader software, including Outlook Express and Outlook.

8. What client software enables users to interact with an FTP site?
Any FTP client software. Microsoft includes a command-line FTP client with Windows, and third-party vendors offer graphical FTP clients, such as Cute FTP.

9. How can you configure a Web site to save information about user activity to a log file?
On the Web site’s properties, ensure that the Enable logging check box is selected.

10. What happens if a user tries to access a Web site that is uniquely identified by a host header, but the user’s proxy server removes the HTTP 1.1 headers from the request?
The Web server will not be able to identify the intended site and will direct the user to the Web site that uses the same IP address but does not have a host header configured. That generally means that the user will be directed to the Default Web site.

11. What two types of remote connections are most commonly used with RRAS?
Dial-up and VPN (virtual private network).

12. What two VPN protocols does RRAS support?
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).

13. What two protocols are necessary to create an encrypted VPN with clients who are not PPTP-compatible?
L2TP is used to create the virtual connection, and IP Security (IPSec) is used to encrypt the contents of the tunnel.

14. How can you monitor the users who are currently dialed in to an RRAS server?
By using the RRAS console to monitor remote client connections.

15. How can you centralize the remote access policies for several RRAS servers?
By configuring RRAS to use a RADIUS server instead of the default Windows authentication method.

16. What standard protocol does IAS use?
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, or RADIUS.

17. How does RRAS authenticate users through IAS?
By forwarding the user’s logon credentials and other information to IAS and asking IAS if the user is permitted to connect.

18. What service must already be present in order for IAS to operate?
IAS reads remote access policies from the local server, which requires RRAS to be installed. IAS also works with Active Directory (AD) and uses AD user accounts in its authentication process.

19. How can IAS be used to forward RADIUS requests to another RADIUS server?
IAS can act as a RADIUS proxy, receiving RADIUS requests from a remote access server and forwarding those requests to another RADIUS server based on certain information about the user who is attempting to connect.

20. How can IAS help monitor your remote access utilization?
IAS supports accounting, which can create log files that detail the remote access activity on your RRAS servers.

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Dec 26, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 03

1. What are some of the common configuration options that DHCP can configure on a client computer?
Default router, DNS server, WINS server, and domain name.

2. How can you use DHCP and still ensure that a computer always uses the same IP address?
By creating a DHCP reservation for the computer.

3. How can you use DHCP to configure client computers to use a WINS or DNS server?
By configuring the addresses of the WINS or DNS servers as global or scope options on the DHCP server.

4. How do you configure two WINS servers to exchange name-to-IPaddress mappings with each other?
By configuring them as replication partners.

5. How can you use the WINS snap-in to manage more than one WINS server at once?
By configuring the snap-in to connect to the other WINS servers and display their information.

6. How do you ensure that WINS clients can look up the IP addresses of servers that aren’t compatible with WINS?
By creating static WINS entry for the non-WINS servers.

7. What type of DNS record allows another computer to determine the IP address of your company’s e-mail server?
An MX record.

8. How can your DNS server help resolve Internet host names that are not contained within its database?
By forwarding the request to another DNS server.

9. What type of DNS record allows a computer to have a nickname?
A CNAME record.

10. How does a computer decide whether or not data should be sent to the computer’s default gateway?
By examining the network ID portion of the destination IP address. If it is the same as the computer’s own network ID, then the default gateway is not used. If the network IDs are different, then the default gateway is used.

11. What protocol does a computer use to determine the physical address of another computer?
The Address Resolution Protocol, or ARP.

12. What TCP/IP protocol does a computer use when it wants to ensure that data transmissions are received by the destination computer?
The Transport Control Protocol, or TCP, which allows the destination computer to confirm receipt of individual packets.

13. What piece of information allows a computer to determine which portion of an IP address identifies a network and which identifies a computer?
The subnet mask.

14. What tool enables you to apply a security template to a computer by using a batch file?

15. Why are security templates better than configuring security on individual computers? Because templates can be centrally configured and then applied to computers, enabling you to create a consistent security policy across all of your computers.

16. How does the Security Configuration Manager enable you to analyze the result of applying several security templates?
By showing you the effective policies after analyzing the templates you want to apply.

17. How do you configure domain security policies?
By configuring the local security policy of a domain controller.

18. What are three major classes of security policies?
Account policy, lockout policy, and security options.

19. What effect does a policy have when it is undefined?
Undefined policies have no effect.

20. How can you create your own security templates?
By using the Security Configuration Manager, or SCM, to define the policies in the template and then saving the template to a file.

Dec 25, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 02

1. What file system supports file and folder permissions?
NTFS is the only file system that supports permissions.

2. What file system is compatible with Windows Server 2003 and Windows 98?
Both FAT16 and FAT32 are compatible.

3. How can you make the files on a Windows Server 2003 computer available to users on the network?
Share the folder containing the files.

4. How can you control access to files that are located on a FAT32 volume?
Share the folder containing the files and then apply share permissions, or convert the volume to NTFS and use file and folder permissions.

5. What is the minimum number of hard disks required for a RAID 5array?

6. What are the two components of a UNC?
The server name and the share name: \\Server\Share.

7. What does DFS stand for?
Distributed File System.

8. How do you add new UNCs to DFS?
Use the DFS Administrator to add a new link to an existing DFS tree.

9. How does DFS enable you to load-balance access to shared files?
By adding multiple replicas to a single DFS link. Each replica must point to a UNC containing identical files and folders.

10. How can you compress an encrypted file?
You cannot. Files can be compressed, or encrypted, but not both.

11. Who can access an encrypted file?
The owner of the file, anyone the owner places on the access list, and any designated Recovery Agents.

12. How can you prevent users from using too much disk space on a server?
Implement disk quotas and create a quota for the users that limits that amount of space they can utilize.

13. If a user compresses a file, how does it count against his disk quota?
The original, uncompressed file size counts against their quota.

14. How does a printer relate to a print device?
A printer is a software queue that sends print jobs, one at a time, to a physical print device, such as a laser or inkjet printer.

15. How can you control the hours that users can print documents?
Modify the properties of the printer so that the printer is active only during the desired hours.

16. How does Terminal Services send screen images to a client?
By intercepting the Graphical Device Interface (GDI) commands and transmitting them to the client.

17. Who is allowed to log on to Terminal Services in Remote Administration mode? Members of the server’s local Administrators user group.

18. How long will Terminal Services operate in App Server mode without a Licensing server?
90 days.

19. What map-back capabilities are provided by the Terminal Services client software?
Sound, communication ports, printers, and storage devices.

20. How can users send faxes using a centralized Windows Server 2003 computer?
Install a fax device, install Fax Services, and share the fax printer that Windows creates.

Dec 24, 2008

FAQ - Windows Server 2003 – 01

1. What are the four editions of Windows Server 2003, and what aretheir major differences?
The four editions are Standard Edition, Web Edition, Enterprise Edition, and Datacenter Edition. The primary difference is in the amount of physical RAM and number of processors that can be utilized by the operating system. Web Edition also has major feature differences from the other versions.

2. What does the term multitasking mean?
The ability to run more than one task, or process (such as an application), at the same time.

3. What are three methods you can use to install Windows Server 2003?
CD-ROM, over the network, or from a Remote Installation Services (RIS) server.

4. How would you set up and start an unattended upgrade of Windows Server 2003 using a CD-ROM?
Unattended upgrades can be started by running Winnt32.exe /upgrade from the i386 folder of the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM.

5. What capability allows Windows Server 2003 to run on servers that have no mouse, monitor, keyboard, or video card?
Support for headless servers.

6. What are the built-in local users included with Windows Server 2003? How about the built-in users installed with Active Directory? What can these users do?
The two built-in local users are Administrator and Guest. The built-in domain user accounts installed with Active Directory also include Administrator and Guest. In both cases, the Administrator user has full control over the local computer (or domain), and the Guest user is disabled by default.

7. What are some of the built-in local groups included with Windows Server 2003? How about the built-in groups installed with Active Directory? What can these groups do?
The built-in local groups include Administrators and Users. Members of the Administrators group have full control over the computer. All new user accounts are automatically added to the Users group by default. Built-in Active Directory domain groups (and their capabilities) include Domain Admins (full control over the domain), Enterprise Admins (full control over a forest), Domain Users (which contains all domain user accounts by default), and Schema Admins (control over Active Directory’s schema).

8. How can you determine who has been logging on to your servers and accessing resources?
By enabling auditing on logon events and by enabling auditing on the appropriate resources. Audit events are written to the Security Event Log.

9. How can you force users to select passwords with at least tencharacters?
Establish a local computer (or domain) policy that requires passwords to have a minimum length of ten characters.

10. How can you prevent users from changing their passwords and then immediately changing back to their old passwords?
Establish a local computer (or domain) policy that specifies a minimum password age.

11. What are the three roles a server can play on your network?
Standalone, member server, or domain controller.

12. What is the difference between a standalone server and a member server?
A member server belongs to a domain and can assign permissions to domain users and groups. A standalone server does not belong to a domain and can use only its local users and groups for permissions.

13. When is a single domain appropriate for an organization?
Whenever the users and groups in the organization are administered by a single individual or department.

14. Why might an organization choose to include all of their users in a single organizational unit (OU)?
When all of the organization’s users have identical security and policy requirements.

15. How can two independent domains be brought together into a forest?
By establishing an explicit trust between the two domains.

16. What must a DNS server provide in order to be compatible with Active Directory?
Support for SRV records and for dynamic DNS updates.

17. How can you remove Active Directory from a domain controller and make it a standalone server again?
Run Dcpromo.exe and demote the domain controller.

18. What is the best method or methods to install Windows Server 2003 on a dozen identical computers that are attached to your network? Create an installation image using unattended setup and a Remote Installation Services (RIS) server.

19. What advantages does Active Directory offer over using local user accounts on standalone servers?
Active Directory allows many servers to share a common set of user and group accounts and enables users to access all of the resources in an organization with a single username and password.

20. What must you do to reactivate a user who has mistyped her password too many times and has become locked out?
Use Active Directory Users and Computers to unlock her account.

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